Aug 15, in Ajaccio, Corsica, France Died: May 5, at age 51 in Longwood, Saint Helena Nationality: Emperor of France from to Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to power during the last stages of French Revolution and its wars in Europe. He was a great military commander and leader of his people.
He was the fourth, and second surviving, child of Carlo Buonapartea lawyer, and his wife, Letizia Ramolino. Carlo Buonaparte had married the beautiful and strong-willed Letizia when she was only 14 years old; they eventually had eight children to bring up in very difficult times.
The French occupation of their native country was resisted by a number of Corsicans led by Pasquale Paoli. Winning the protection of the governor of Corsica, he was appointed assessor for the judicial district of Ajaccio in A Corsican by birth, heredity, and childhood associations, Napoleon continued for some time after his arrival in Continental France to regard himself a foreigner; yet from age nine he was educated in France as other Frenchmen were.
While the tendency to see in Napoleon a reincarnation of some 14th-century Italian condottiere is an overemphasis on one aspect of his character, he did, in fact, share neither the traditions nor the prejudices of his new country: Napoleon was educated at three schools: Napoleon, although not the eldest son, assumed the position of head of the family before he was In September he graduated from the military academy, ranking 42nd in a class of Garrisoned at ValenceNapoleon continued his education, reading much, in particular works on strategy and tactics.
He went back to Corsica in September and did not rejoin his regiment until June By that time the agitation that was to culminate in the French Revolution had already begun. A reader of Voltaire and of RousseauNapoleon believed that a political change was imperativebut, as a career officer, he seems not to have seen any need for radical social reforms.
But Paoli had no sympathy for the young man, whose father had deserted his cause and whom he considered to be a foreigner. Disappointed, Napoleon returned to France, and in April he was appointed first lieutenant to the 4th regiment of artillery, garrisoned at Valence.
He at once joined the Jacobin Cluba debating society initially favouring a constitutional monarchy, and soon became its president, making speeches against nobles, monks, and bishops. In September he got leave to go back to Corsica again for three months. Elected lieutenant colonel in the national guard, he soon fell out with Paoli, its commander in chief.
When he failed to return to France, he was listed as a deserter in January But in April France declared war against Austria, and his offense was forgiven.
Apparently through patronage, Napoleon was promoted to the rank of captain but did not rejoin his regiment. Instead he returned to Corsica in Octoberwhere Paoli was exercising dictatorial powers and preparing to separate Corsica from France.
Napoleon Bonaparte, as he may henceforth be called though the family did not drop the spelling Buonaparte until afterrejoined his regiment at Nice in June In his Le Souper de Beaucaire Supper at Beaucairewritten at this time, he argued vigorously for united action by all republicans rallied round the Jacobins, who were becoming progressively more radical, and the National Conventionthe Revolutionary assembly that in the preceding fall had abolished the monarchy.
Bonaparte was promoted to major in September and adjutant general in October. He received a bayonet wound on December 16, but on the next day the British troops, harassed by his artillery, evacuated Toulon. On December 22 Bonaparte, age 24, was promoted to brigadier general in recognition of his decisive part in the capture of the town.
He was freed in September but was not restored to his command. The post seemed to hold no future for him, and he went to Paris to justify himself. Despite his efforts in Paris, Napoleon was unable to obtain a satisfactory command, because he was feared for his intense ambition and for his relations with the Montagnardsthe more radical members of the National Convention.
He then considered offering his services to the sultan of Turkey. The Directory Bonaparte was still in Paris in October when the National Convention, on the eve of its dispersal, submitted the new constitution of the year III of the First Republic to a referendum, together with decrees according to which two-thirds of the members of the National Convention were to be reelected to the new legislative assemblies.
The royalists, hoping that they would soon be able to restore the monarchy, instigated a revolt in Paris to prevent these measures from being put into effect. Bonaparte became commander of the Army of the Interior and, consequently, was henceforth aware of every political development in France.
He became the respected adviser on military matters to the new government, the Directory. Having proved his loyalty to the Directory, he was appointed commander in chief of the Army of Italy in March Simón Bolívar was a Venezuelan military leader who was instrumental in the revolutions against the Spanish empire.
Learn more about his fight for Spanish-American independence at srmvision.com The Marquis de Lafayette was a French general who played important roles in two revolutions in France and volunteered his time and money to help the American cause . SUCCESSORS OF ROME: FRANCIA, Present. Kings and Emperors of the Franks, France, Burgundy, Italy, and Germany.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and the occupation of much of Gaul by the Franks, Roman power never returned far enough to come into conflict with the Frankish kingdom (except, to an extent, in the South of Italy). The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from until and resulting from the French srmvision.com pitted the French Republic against Great Britain, Austria and several other monarchies.
They are divided in two periods: the War of the First Coalition (–97) and the War of the Second Coalition (–). Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution. This biography provides detailed information about his childhood, life, career, achievements & srmvision.com Of Birth: Ajaccio.
The definitive biography of the great soldier-statesman by the acclaimed author of The Storm of War—winner of the LA Times Book prize, finalist for the Plutarch prize, winner of the Fondation Napoleon prize and a New York Times bestseller “A thrilling tale of military and political genius Roberts is an uncommonly gifted writer.”.