Include discussion section research paper

Top of Page Describe the organism s used in the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected2 typical size weight, length, etc3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment.

Include discussion section research paper

Data is expressed as number within the sample who possess the characteristic. Probability determined using a Mann- Whitney U test.

Why is Table 1 in most studies?

Include discussion section research paper

Shows that demographic and prognostic variables were evenly balanced in the process of random allocation of subjects to experimental and control groups.

Components of Results section Results should answer main hypothesis or research question s Order of presenting results is arbitrary May be done in Table 1 in less-complicated studies; or be set apart to emphasize its importance. Results that are "sidelights" should not receive equal weight When presenting the results for the main hypotheses, consider: Clear, concise, simple Is enough detail presented to allow the reader to determine whether the effect of the experimental treatment vs.

Were adverse effects reported? Do not state any differences were present between groups unless a significant P value is attached. You select those descriptive and inferential statistics you wish to use, and place them in the order that seems reasonable to you.

Tables and Graphs Presentation Tables and graphs must stand alone Can a member of your department unfamiliar with the study pick up your graph and explain its meaning to you?

Tables and Graphs

Text should highlight the importance or meaning of the figures and tables, not repeat the data contained within them. Tables and graphs both carry a necessary part of the message- use both Do the numbers add up? Are baseline values for the groups similar?

Are tables and graphs clearly labeled and appropriately scaled? Are the results of statistical analysis presented? Can one determine what statistical test produced the result? Choosing graph types To compare proportions and relative amounts How big?

To show correlations how well does one thing predict another? If your results agree with previous work, fine. If they do not, explain why not, or you may leave it unresolved "We cannot account for the difference seen in Were there any problems with carrying out the method as originally planned?

Not enough men in the study? Unanticipated amounts of side effects or pain?


Failure to look at a crucial time interval? Any unsettled points in results? Look forward Implications for patient care, or for theory Suggestions for future research "If I had to do it over I would Conclusion Beware inappropriate conclusions beyond the range of the data, beyond the design of the study Abstract Contains all sections of paper Introduction with clinical importance and a key reference or two Methods in pertinent detail Results of testing the main hypothesis and most significant other results only Discussion a sentence or two on main implications or conclusion Structured abstracts See current abstracts in Anesth Analg or Anesthesiology?

Is ondansetron as effective as droperidol in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting?Sep 03,  · Expert Reviewed. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper.

Four Parts: Sample Conclusions Writing a Basic Conclusion Making Your Conclusion as Effective as Possible Avoiding Common Pitfalls Community Q&A The conclusion of a research paper needs to summarize the content and purpose of the paper without 80%(41).

Think of the results section as the place where you report what your study found; think of the discussion section as the place where you interpret your data and answer the "So What?" question. As you become more skilled writing research papers, you may want to meld the results of your study with a .

A good strategy is to always re-read the background section of your paper after you have written up your results to ensure that the reader has enough context to understand the results [and, later, how you interpreted the results in the discussion section of your paper].

Indeed, every discussion should include a "humility" section that addresses the study's limitations, write Cone and Foster. But avoid beginning the discussion with a long list of study limitations, says Nolen-Hoeksema. This section describes an organizational structure commonly used to report experimental research in many scientific disciplines, the IMRAD format: Introduction, Methods, Results, And Discussion..

Although the main headings are standard for many scientific fields, details may vary; check with your instructor, or, if submitting an article to a journal, refer to the instructions to authors. In this critical part of the research paper, you start the process of explaining any links and correlations apparent in your data..

If you left few interesting leads and open questions in the results section, the discussion is simply a matter of .

Sections of a Paper: Structure of a Scientific Paper